Since the early 1960s, it is possible to merge these somatic cells. This mode of crossing is distinct from that which occurs during sexual reproduction. It is nevertheless an alternative approach and the highly successful genetic modern human.
In 1960, Georges Barski and colleagues at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif obtained in mixed cultures in vitro of two different strains of somatic cells, hybrid cells, clear product of the merger and integration of genetic two distinct cell units.
Special circumstances have facilitated the demonstration. Mouse cells chosen for these initial experiments were very different characteristics: one of them had a karyotype composed of many chromosomes “markers” in both arms, unusual for the mouse, and lacked tumorigenic properties and the other , with a karyotype quite close to normal, except for one extra-long marker chromosome, was highly malignant. In addition, both strains had very different morphologies, easily distinguishable.
The new hybrid cell was immediately recognizable by the simultaneous presence, in its karyotype, chromosomal met the two linings almost entirely.
The hybrid cells, isolated from mixed cultures, have proved perfectly feasible and could be developed in pure clonal populations that have retained, despite a degree of chromosome segregation, their essential properties, including their karyotype “hybrid” and morphology “intermediate”, and tumorigenic properties, inheritable malignant.
Opened a new path now in experimental biology. Could now be hoped that the sexual crosses, the primary tool, since the memorable work of Mendel, genetic analysis of the phenomena of heredity in higher beings, could [...]